Indian Nurse’s Diaspora in Global Health Care; Uncovering the Key Findings About Migration of Nurses from Indian Perspective: A Review


  • Khina Sharma All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India
  • Ashok Kumar All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India
  • Mahendra Kumar Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India
  • Ranjit Pal SIngh Bhogal Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India



MIgration, Indian NUrses, Nurses' MIgration, Migrant nurses, Global migration


There is no doubt that consequences of health workforce migration are serious for any developing country. The world's largest health care migrating population is from India. India has a population of 1.38 billion, about 17.7% of the world’s population and we, as a nation, are struggling to prepare future-ready health care professionals and our own health professionals’ needs are not met. However, large numbers of Indian nurses migrate to developed countries due to numerous factors. Economic factors are considered main force for migration, but not always purely responsible, as nurses look for safety, security, respect, and dignity of their profession. This scoping review is employed to find causes, consequences, and strategies related to international migration of Indian Nurses.    


Karan A, Negandhi H, Hussain S, Zapata T, Mairemba D, Graeve HD et al. Size, composition and distribution of health workforce in India: why, and where to invest?. Hum Resour Health[Internet]. 2021 [Cited 2022 Jan 02]; Available from: DOI: PMid:33752675 PMCid:PMC7983088 DOI:

Anand S, Fan V. The health workforce in India [Internet]. 2022 [cited 17 January 2022]. Available from:

S. Irudaya R, Robert MW. Global Demand for Medical Professionals Drives Indians Abroad Despite Acute Domestic Health-Care Worker Shortages [Internet]. 2020 [cited 17 January 2022]. Available from:

Palanivelu S. The migration of nurses: Trends , challenges , ethical concern and policies- India. International journal of applied re-search. International Journal of Applied Research. 2016; 2(11): 79-88

Roberts MW, Bhutani S, Kaur A. Care and Global Migration in the Nursing Profession: a north Indian perspective. Australian Geog-rapher. 2017; 48(1): 59-77. DOI: DOI:

Migration of Health workers. WHO Code of Practice and the Global Economic Crisis. [Internet]. 2022 [cited 17 January 2022]. Available from:

Kingma M. Nurses on the move: A Global Overview. Health Serv Res. 2007; 42(3):1281-98. DOI: PMid:17489915 PMCid:PMC1955376 DOI:

From brain drain to brain gain: Migration of Nursing and Midwifery Workfroce in the State of Karela. [Internet]. 2022 [cit-ed 17 January 2022]. Available from:

NMC. Statistical Analysis of the Register. 1 April 2004 to 31 March 2005. Report August 2005. London: Nursing and Midwifery Council; 2005. [July 10, 2006]. Available at

HSE. Dublin: Health Service Executive; 2004. [July 24, 2006]. "National Report: Adaptation Placements (Overseas Trained Nurses & Midwives)" Available at

Thomas P. The international migration of Indian nurses. Int Nurs Rev. 2006; 53(4): 277-83. DOI: PMid:17083416 DOI:

Kodoth P, Tina Kuriakose J. International Mobility of Nurses from Kerala (India) to the EU: Prospects and Challenges with Special Reference to the Netherlands and Denmark [Internet]. 2013 [cited 17 January 2022]. Available from:

Nair. 'Efforts under Way to Stem "Brain Drain" of Doctors and Nurses', Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2007; 83(2):84-85

Khadria B. International Nurse Recruitment in India. Health Services Research. 2007; 42(3):1429-36. DOI: PMid:17489924 PMCid:PMC1955375 DOI:

Gill R. Nursing Shortage in India with special reference to International Migration of Nurses. Themes and debates. 2011; 6(1): 52-59

Kline DS. Push and pull factors in international nurse migration. J Nurs Scholarsh. 2003; 35(2): 107-11. DOI: PMid:12854289 DOI:

Sudhakar P. A Study on Migration of Indian Nurses to the OECD Countries: Trends and Challenges Society for Labour and Develop-ment Acknowledgement [Internet]. 2013 [cited 17 January 2022]. Available from:

Oda H. An analysis of Indian Nurses' Intension to Migrate Abroad. Available from

Nair, S. & Percot, M. (2007). Transcending boundaries: Indian nurses in internal and international migration, CWDS Occasional pa-pers no. 47, New Delhi: Centre for Women's Development Studies. Available from:

Timmons, S., Evans, C., & Nair, S. (2016). The development of the nursing profession in a globalized context: A qualitative case study in Kerala, India. Social Science & Medicine, 166, 41-48. DOI: PMid:27529143 DOI:

Roberts MW, Runnels V, Rajan SI, Sood A, Nair S, Thomas P et al. Causes, consequences, and policy responses to the migration of health workers: key findings from India. Hum Resour Health. 15, 28(2017). DOI: PMid:28381289 PMCid:PMC5382411 DOI:

Grignon M, Owusu Y, Sweetman A,. The international migration of health professionals. 2012 [Internet]. Available from file:///C:/Users/dushyant%20Pandit/Downloads/The_international_migration_of_health_pr.pdf

Li H, Nie W, Li J. Review: The benefit and caveats of international nurse migration. International Journal of Nursing Scinces. 2014; 314-7. DOI: DOI:

Kumar S. Exporting Indian Healthcare workers to the world. Health express. 2021. Available at:

Hashish EA, Ashour HM. Determinants and mitigating factors of the brain drain among Egyptian nurses: a mixed-method study. Journal of Research in Nurisng. 2020; 25(8): 699-719. DOI: PMid:34394693 PMCid:PMC7932471 DOI:

Garner SL, Conroy SF, Bader SG. Nurse migration from India: a literature review. Int J Nurs Stud. 2015; 52(12): 1879-90. DOI: PMid:26216005 DOI:

Draft Emigration Bill 2021. Ministry of External Affairs. Government of India. Available at:




How to Cite

Sharma K, Kumar A, Kumar M, Bhogal RPS. Indian Nurse’s Diaspora in Global Health Care; Uncovering the Key Findings About Migration of Nurses from Indian Perspective: A Review. Natl J Community Med [Internet]. 2022 Aug. 31 [cited 2022 Sep. 30];13(08):565-70. Available from:



Review Articles